The Affordable Care Act (ACA) has tied the hands of employers who would like to reimburse employees for the cost of their individual health insurance coverage. Under the ACA, tax-free reimbursement of employee health insurance costs was not permitted through a health reimbursement arrangement (HRA) unless it was “integrated” with an employer-provided group health plan. Stand-alone HRAs were prohibited even for small employers that were not subject to the ACA mandate to offer group health coverage.
However, in the waning days of the Obama administration, the President signed the 21st Century Cures Act which allows “small employers” to adopt Qualified Small Employer HRAs (QSEHRAs) to reimburse covered employees for their own health insurance premiums as well as other qualified medical expenses.
Small employer means an employer that does not employ at least 50 full-time plus “full-time equivalent” employees. In other words, employers that are not required to offer ACA coverage to their employees. Full-time employees for this purpose are those working 30 or more hours per week. If a small employer does maintain a group health plan, it cannot provide QSEHRA reimbursement benefits.
QSEHRA benefits must be offered to all eligible employees. Some employees can be excluded (those under age 25, those who have been employed fewer than 90 days, part-time and seasonal employees). Annual reimbursement benefits are limited to $4,950.00 (individual) and $10,000.00 (family) with a proration of these limits for partial plan years. No employee contributions are permitted. Also, employees must personally maintain ACA minimum essential coverage to avoid taxable income on reimbursement benefits. There are additional employee notice and tax reporting requirements.
The Takeaways: For small employers with employees covered by individual ACA policies, a QSEHRA can provide tax advantaged benefits at whatever benefit level the employer selects up to the permitted maximum. Qualifying employers with a young work force may find this benefit particularly attractive as it is young workers who are paying significantly increased premiums for individual ACA coverage.
For shareholders of S corporations, their QSEHRA eligibility needs to be reviewed because of existing limits under the Internal Revenue Code on those who may have “other coverage” available through a spouse or otherwise. S corporation shareholders need to consult a tax professional if they intend to participate in their corporation’s QSEHRA. Additional guidance from the IRS on QSEHRA’s is expected, and such guidance could affect the current understanding of QSEHRA requirements.