• Benefits Bulletin

    No Plan Document? No Problem!

    Andrew S. Williams
    12/7/17

    Many of us have believed that every ERISA plan must have both a plan document and a summary plan description (“SPD”). An SPD is required for all ERISA plans in order to explain them in plain English. ERISA also requires subject plans to have a “written instrument” and it is the usual practice, for retirement plans in particular, to have both a plan document and an SPD.

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  • IP BLAWG

    No Vicarious Thrills Here

    Beverly A. Berneman
    12/5/17

    Be careful not to control someone else’s infringing activities. %CUT% Barcroft Media Ltd. provides a video and image library available for download. Photographer, Jeffrey R. Werner, filed suit against Barcroft alleging that it allowed Valnet Inc. to download his photos without his consent. Jeffrey alleged that Barcroft materially contributed to Valnet’s infringement by granting Valnet a retroactive license. Barcroft brought a motion to dismiss arguing that Jeffrey didn’t state a claim. The court denied the motion deciding that Jeffrey stated a claim for vicarious liability and contributory infringement. Although the court expressed some doubt as to whether Jeffery’s going to be able to prove the facts to support his case.

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  • IP BLAWG

    There is no Shame in That

    Beverly A. Berneman
    11/28/17

    Submitting an idea doesn’t mean you own it. %CUT% Author, Dan Rosen, had a screenplay called “Darci’s Walk of Fame”. For those who are not ‘in the know’, the standard elements of a walk of shame are: (1) a one night stand; (2) waking up the next morning in someone else’s bed; and (3) having to walk (or taxi or Uber or Lyft) home in the clothes you wore the night before. Dan was lucky to get a meeting with actress and producer, Elizabeth Banks and her husband to present his screenplay. After discussing the plot line, characters, and themes, Banks and her husband took a pass. Not long after the meeting, Banks starred in the 2014 movie “Walk of Shame” which wasn’t exactly a box office hit. Dan’s assignee, Shame on You Productions, Inc. sued Banks, her husband, and the film’s production based on copyright infringement and an implied contract. The court applied the extrinsic test to determine if infringement occurred. The extrinsic test focuses on specific similarities between two works. Scenes a faire (standard situations that flow naturally from the plot) are disregarded. The two works shared the “walk of shame” premise and some natural elements that flowed from it, but the narratives and characters were different. Shame on You’s case was dismissed and affirmed on appeal.

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  • IP BLAWG

    Yummy Bread – But It’s a Secret

    Beverly A. Berneman
    11/14/17

    Trade secrets are a good way to protect a recipe. %CUT% Sycamore Family Bakery Inc. sold its assets to Bimbo Bakeries USA. Included in the assets was Sycamore’s secret recipe for Grandma Sycamore’s Home-Maid Bread. When Leland Sycamore went to work for US Bakery, US Bakery started selling bread made from the same recipe. US Bakery also mimicked Bimbo’s packaging. Bimbo sued for trade secret misappropriation and false advertising. A jury awarded Bimbo $2 million.

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  • Benefits Bulletin

    DOL Targets Plans With Missing Participants

    Andrew S. Williams
    11/8/17

    You or your retirement plan’s third party administrator (TPA) need to make a benefit distribution to an ex-employee. But the employer’s records are out of date and the former employee cannot be located. Worse yet, the missing participant has attained age 70½ so the plan is required to make minimum distributions (RMDs) but cannot do so.

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  • IP BLAWG

    Trademark Goes Down for the Count

    Beverly A. Berneman
    11/7/17

    A licensee can’t knock out a confusingly similar trademark. %CUT% Julie A. Moreno licensed the Mexican trademark, DEPORTES CASANOVA, for sports equipment. Julie challenged Pro Boxing Supplies, Inc.’s trademark applications and registrations for CASANOVA due to a likelihood of confusion. The TTAB denied Julie’s petitions. While this looked like a priority of use problem, the real problem was that a licensee and not the owner/licensor was claiming priority of use. The TTAB ruled against Julie because: “Allowing a licensee to claim priority for itself in an inter parties proceeding based on the licensor’s use of the mark (whether through the license or otherwise), could result in a licensee being able to claim de facto ownership of the licensed mark.”

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  • IP BLAWG

    Spooky Banana Halloween

    Beverly A. Berneman
    10/31/17

    A banana costume could infringe on a banana costume. %CUT% If you bought a banana costume for Halloween today, you may have purchased a copyright infringing product. Rasta Imposta sued Kmart for selling alleged knockoffs of Rasta Imposta’s banana costume. Costumes are generally considered clothing which are useful articles and can’t be copyrighted (Whimiscality, Inc. v. Rubie’s Costumes which held a child’s pumpkin costume could not be copyrighted). But masks can be copyrighted because they aren’t considered useful articles. (Masquerade Novelty v. Unique Industries which held that animal nose masks can be copyrighted). But would a banana costume be considered clothing and not copyrightable? We’re going to have to live in limbo because Rasta Imposta and Kmart settled.

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  • IP BLAWG

    Eleven's Frozen Eggos Are Safe

    Beverly A. Berneman
    10/24/17

    We celebrate the premier of Season 2 of Netflix’s hit horror series, Stranger Things, with a not-so-spooky cease and desist letter. %CUT% The popularity of Stranger Things seeped into the culture. So much so, that in August 2017, Chicago-based Emporium Arcade Bar opened a pop-up location called “The Upside Down” which was designed to look like the sets from the series. The only problem was that they didn’t get permission from Netflix. Netflix’s in-house lawyers sent a cease and desist letter. Netflix took an even-tempered, but effective, approach. The letter could be summarized but it’s much better to see it in its entirety:

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  • IP BLAWG

    Going Nuclear

    Beverly A. Berneman
    10/17/17

    The Defend Trade Secrets Act of 2016 can go nuclear to stop misappropriation. %CUT% The Defend Trade Secrets Act of 2016 (“DTSA”), which created a federal cause of action for misappropriation, has one amazing feature that’s new to trade secret litigation. It allows the court to order seizure of stolen trade secrets in “extraordinary circumstances” without advance notice. This has been called the “nuclear option”. Because it’s a draconian remedy, courts have been reluctant to enter seizure orders. The recent case of Mission Capital Advisors LLC v. Romaka, gives a clue for determining extraordinary circumstances. According to court documents, Romaka had downloaded Mission Capital’s entire 65,000 person client list while he was receiving employment offers from Mission Capital’s competitors. In granting an order for seizure, the court cited Romaka’s activities such as downloading the files while he was absent from work for several weeks; he said that he deleted the files, when he hadn’t; and he had downloaded other proprietary information and stored it on his computer. Although Romaka was cooperative originally, he didn’t respond to Mission Capital’s attempts to contact him. The court ordered U.S. Marshalls to go to his home, make a forensic copy of his computer and then permanently delete the files.

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  • IP BLAWG

    Click at Your Own Risk

    Beverly A. Berneman
    10/10/17

    WHY YOU SHOULD KNOW THIS. The enforcement of on-line terms and conditions has been problematic for courts. The amorphous quality of an on-line terms and conditions means there is no signature demonstrating agreement, no version control and no way to verify that a party actually read the terms. So, many courts have come up with a test for enforceability. The primary components are that (1) the terms and conditions have to be easily accessible; and (2) the user has to do something affirmative to show agreement. According to the Second Circuit Court of Appeals, Uber was able to show both components in this case. Of note is that Kalernick couldn’t have created his Uber account without agreeing to the terms. So Kalernick’s faulty memory about it was not an excuse. Alas, Uber may have won the battle and lost the war by participating in the litigation before it sought to enforce the arbitration clause.

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  • IP BLAWG

    A Sharp Stick in the Shoulder

    Beverly A. Berneman
    10/3/17

    Prior art can stop a patent. %CUT% Dr. Steven Chudik sought to patent an implant for a portion of the humerus bone that would be utilized as part of shoulder replacement surgery. The Patent Trial and Appeal Board held that a French patent barred issuance of the patent as prior art. The Federal Circuit affirmed. So Dr. Chudik won’t be getting a patent.

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  • Benefits Bulletin

    Group Health Plan Audit Requirement: Who Do You Trust?

    Andrew S. Williams
    9/28/17

    Most larger group health plans are self-funded, which means the employer, not an insurer, is primarily responsible for paying benefits. These plans also are likely to require employee contributions towards the cost of benefits, and those contributions typically are paid to the employer (not a trust) on a pre-tax basis through a cafeteria (Section 125) plan.

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  • IP BLAWG

    A Spoonful of No

    Beverly A. Berneman
    9/26/17

    Catchy phrases don’t always function as trademarks. %CUT% Melissa Benson wanted to trademark her slogan “Still Spooning”. It appeared on her interesting mix of goods, flatware and fishing lures. Milk & Honey LLC, who sells houseware using the same trademark, opposed the registration. The Trademark Trial and Appeal Board didn’t accept Milk & Honey’s objection based on Benson’s mark being merely a descriptive argument. But, the Board accepted Milk & Honey’s second argument that the words didn’t function as a mark. The Board looked at Benson’s specimens of use and determined that the consuming public would perceive the words as ornamental and reference to the engraving on the goods. So the opposition was sustained and the mark wasn’t registered.

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  • IP BLAWG

    SCOTUS Roundup: 2016 – 2017 Edition

    Beverly A. Berneman
    9/19/17

    During the 2016 to 2017 term, the US Supreme Court was able to put in the final word on some disputed areas of the law. But in others, not so much. %CUT% Here’s a roundup:

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  • IP BLAWG

    No Delete Button For Your Brain

    Beverly A. Berneman
    9/12/17

    An employee can’t unlearn information that belongs to a former employer. %CUT% The “Inevitable Disclosure Doctrine” is a term of art in trade secret law. The Doctrine applies to bar a former employee with knowledge of the employer’s trade secrets and confidential information from accepting a similar role with the employer’s competitor. In Utilisave, LLC v. Miele, the Third Circuit Court of Appeals affirmed the entry of a preliminary injunction under the Doctrine. The preliminary injunction was based on the substantial overlap between the former employee’s old job and his new one which was basically the same role, in the same industry, for the same geographic territory. With this kind of overlap, the court felt the former employee was likely to use confidential information and trade secrets to the detriment of his former employer. The preliminary injunction was warranted even though there wasn’t actual misappropriation of any particular trade secret or confidential information.

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  • IP BLAWG

    Splitting Up Isn't Easy for Trademarks

    Beverly A. Berneman
    9/5/17

    Business divorces can put trademarks in limbo. %CUT% Devon Johnson and Latresa Moore launched the fashion and lifestyle magazine, PYNK, in 2011. It only took two years for the team’s relationship to sour. The parting of the ways was not all that simple. Johnson kept the magazine, but hasn’t posted new content for a long time. Moore set up her own ThinkPynk website and a Pynk Magazine Instagram feed. Johnson tried to trademark the word and design mark for “Pynk”. Moore opposed registration saying that she is a co-owner and Johnson can’t register the mark alone. The TTAB granted the opposition. The board said that it wasn’t possible to delineate what intellectual property and assets remained and with whom. Since Johnson could not show that he was the sole owner, he couldn’t register the marks.

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  • IP BLAWG

    Tech Giants Stand Up for Little Guys

    Beverly A. Berneman
    8/29/17

    The super-powers of technology have decided to address the increasingly convoluted and confusing world of patents. %CUT% Google, Amazon, Intel, Dell, Cisco, Oracle, Salesforce and Adobe are all on the same virtual page. Members of this illustrious group of tech companies recognize that innovation in the form of new and better products is fundamental to economic growth and American jobs. But, there is a “patent quality crisis” of baseless patent assertions and active patent troll litigation. So these tech super-powers have banded together to form the “High Tech Inventors Alliance” ("HTIA"). The goal is to advocate for a balanced patent policy both in the application process and in the courts. They intend to speak up when tech issues are debated in the courts, the Patent and Trademark Office and the media. You can visit their website at https://www.hightechinventors.com/.

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  • IP BLAWG

    Use It or Lose It

    Beverly A. Berneman
    8/22/17

    If you don’t use your trademark, someone else can claim priority over you. %CUT% SPV Coach Company, Inc. filed a trademark application for ARMBRUSTER STAGEWAY in connection with vehicles, namely, customized limousines. Executive Coach Builders, Inc. opposed registration claiming that it had started using the mark before SPV and so had priority of use. The TTAB denied the opposition holding that Executive Coach had abandoned the mark. Further, Executive Coach couldn’t prove that it had any intent to resume use of the mark once it was abandoned. The TTAB cited Executive Coach’s lack of any documentary evidence and the inconsistent and contradictory testimony of its president to support the abandonment ruling. Executive Coach’s alleged use of the abandoned mark was isolated and de minimus. Executive Coach took no orders for branded vehicles. Executive Coach’s domain name didn’t identify the goods or services. Displays at Executive Coach’s plant merely showed historical and not current use of the trademark. So, SPV had priority because of its constructive use of the mark after Executive Coach’s abandonment.

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  • IP BLAWG

    Viral Birth Video Gives Life to Fair Use

    Beverly A. Berneman
    8/15/17

    News and commentary about a dad’s big oops is fair use. %CUT% Proud dad, Kali Kanongataa, accidently live streamed a video of his partner giving birth to their son. The video went viral. As often happens in the world of viral videos, Kanongataa’s video gave rise to a commentary by the media. Much of the commentary involved showing short clips from the 45 minute video. Kanongataa sued ABC, NBC, Yahoo and COED Media for copyright infringement. The judge dismissed the case on the basis of fair use. But, it didn’t stop there. The judge ordered Kanongataa to pay the defendants’ attorney’s fees. The judge said, "no reasonable lawyer with any familiarity with the law of copyright" would have filed the cases.

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  • IP BLAWG

    Concurrent Use Agreement Holds Up

    Beverly A. Berneman
    8/8/17

    Similar trademarks can co-exist with the blessing of the TTAB. %CUT% Bras for Cause, Iowa, Inc. tried to register BRAS FOR THE CAUSE for charitable fundraising services. Soroptimist International of Glendale California, CA opposed registration because it wanted to register BRAS FOR A CAUSE for the same types of services. In the end, the parties settled allowing each party to use their marks. The opposition proceeding became a concurrent use proceeding. At first, TTAB refused to accept the concurrent use agreement because of concerns that the parties would be offering similar services in potentially overlapping geographic territories. This would lead to marketplace confusion. The parties submitted a revised agreement that staked out their territories so there would be no overlap. TTAB accepted the revised agreement and both parties were allowed to proceed with restricted registrations.

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  • IP BLAWG

    To File or Not to File - It's no Question

    Beverly A. Berneman
    8/1/17

    No matter how right you are, you need to register a copyright before filing suit. %CUT%Section 411(a) of the Copyright Act requires registration of a copyright before bringing suit. Federal Circuits are split on how to interpret this. Some circuits say filing an application is enough. Other circuits say the plain language of the statute requires actual registration. In Fourth Estate Public Benefit Corporation v. Wall-Street.com, LLC, the Eleventh Circuit Court of Appeals went with registration means registration. Wall-Street licensed content from Fourth Estate. After the license expired, Wall-Street continued to post Fourth Estate’s content without permission. Fourth Estate applied for registration and then filed suit before the works were actually registered. In affirming the dismissal of the suit, the Eleventh Circuit focused on the fact that the Copyright Office had to examine the application before registration. So filing the application can never be enough.

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  • IP BLAWG

    Subscriber in Disguise

    Beverly A. Berneman
    7/25/17

    The unauthorized use of someone else’s subscription password can result in multi-million dollar liability. %CUT% eVestment Alliance LLC offers a subscription to its trade secret protected database of investment products and performance data. An eVestment subscriber hired Compass iTech LLC to help analyze the eVestment’s data. Compass then used the subscriber’s password about 3,000 times to download information from eVestment’s database for its own benefit. eVestment discovered the activity and shut off access to the database. Compass sued for defamation and unfair trade practices. eVestment counterclaimed. eVestment was granted summary judgment on all of Compass’ claims. On eVestment’s counterclaim, a jury found that Compass deliberately misappropriated eVestment’s trade secrets and violated the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act. The jury awarded eVestment $2.5 million in compensatory damages and $1.2 million in punitive damages.

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  • Benefits Bulletin

    Can you put your Retirement Plan on Autopilot?

    Andrew S. Williams
    7/21/17

    Consider a typical retirement plan sponsored by a private employer. The employer is a fiduciary to the plan along with employees who individually serve as trustees or members of the plan’s investment or retirement committee.

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  • IP BLAWG

    Virtual Krusty Krab Wins the Day

    Beverly A. Berneman
    7/18/17

    The denizens of Bikini Bottom could be confused by a real Krusty Krab restaurant. %CUT% Viewers of the cartoon, SpongeBob SquarePants, are familiar with the underwater (and, of course, fictional) eatery, The Krusty Krab. When IJR Investments, LLC wanted to register the trademark, “The Krusty Krab”, for a dry land real restaurant, Viacom International, Inc., sued for trademark infringement, unfair competition and other causes of action. IJR argued that Viacom never registered the trademark and Viacom only has a fictional restaurant. So, IJR argued, it was free to use the name. The court rejected IJR’s arguments. The court looked at Viacom’s use of the name. It appeared in 166 out of 203 SpongeBob episodes over the 17 year run of SpongeBob. There were 2 successful movies and substantial merchandizing. Viacom’s substantial use for 2 decades established that the name acquired secondary meaning in the minds of consumers. Thus, Viacom had established enforceable common law rights in the name. The court entered judgment in favor of Viacom on its trademark and unfair competition claims.

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  • IP BLAWG

    Over-Release Leads to Over-Regret

    Beverly A. Berneman
    7/11/17

    The good news is that the parties settled their trade secret litigation. The bad news is the release language in the settlement agreement. %CUT% Security Camera Warehouse, Inc. sued Bowman, one of its former owners, for trade secret misappropriation. During the settlement negotiations, unbeknownst to Security Camera, Bowman still had access to Security Camera’s servers and downloaded Security Camera’s trade secrets. After the parties signed a settlement agreement, Bowman set up a new company and competed with Security Camera using the information he took during settlement negotiations. Security Camera brought a second suit against Bowman for trade secret misappropriation. The court held that Security Camera’s claims were barred by the release in the settlement agreement from the first case. The language specifically released Bowman from any claims that Security Camera may have in the future based on events that occurred before the execution of the settlement agreement.

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